School-Based Intervention Idea from


Content: Memorize a Story Grammar Checklist  (Reid & Lienemann, 2006)

Students write lengthier stories that include greater detail when they use a memorized strategy to judge their writing-in-progress.

These young writers are taught a simple mnemonic device with 7 elements: ‘WWW, What=2, How = 2’. This mnemonic translates into a story grammar checklist: WHO the main character is; WHERE the story takes place; WHEN the story occurs; WHAT the main character(s) do or plan to do; WHAT happens next; HOW the story concludes; and HOW the character(s) feel about their experiences. Students are taught this strategy through teacher demonstration, discussion, teacher modeling; and student use of the strategy with gradually fading teacher support. When students use the ‘WWW, What=2, How = 2’ tactic independently, they may still need occasional prompting to use it in their writing. NOTE: Teachers can apply this intervention idea to any genre of writing (e.g., persuasive essay), distilling its essential elements into a similar short, easily memorized checklist to teach to students.


Reid, R. & Lienemann, T.O. (2006). Self-regulated strategy development for written expression with students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children, 73, 53-68.

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